Kod nekih ljudi mozak stari mnogo brže, sada se zna i zašto
Mutacije gena otkrivene kod trećine američke populacije mogle bi da objasne zbog čega mozak nekih osoba stari brže od drugih, navodi se u studiji objavljenoj u sredu u američkom naučnom časopisu “Cell Systems”.
Mutirajući gen TMEM106B može da ubrza starenje i do dvanaest godina, kažu naučnici.
Te genetičke mutacije počinju najčešće oko 65. godine, naročito u prefrontalnom korteksu, gde se nalazi „sedište“ kognitivnih funkcija, kao što su koncentracija, rasuđivanje i kreativnost.
„Ako pogledamo grupu starijih osoba, neke od njih deluju starije nego što jesu, a druge mlađe“, kaže Asa Abeliovič, profesor patologije i neurogloije na Institutu za istraživanje Alchajmerove bolesti i starenja mozga na Univerzitetu Kolumbija u Njujorku.
„U odnosu na vršnjake koji imaju dve normalne kopije, osobe koje imaju dve kopije lošeg gena ostavljaju utisak da su dvanaest godina starije, mereno različitim biološkim merilima“, kaže Abeliovič.
Do 65 godina „svi su jednaki, a zatim se, očigledno, kod nekih aktivira neka vrsta stresa“, kaže naučnik i objašnjava da „ako ste srećnik koji ima dve dobre kopije tog gena, dobro odgovarate na stres, ali ako imate dva oštećena gena, vaš mozak stari brže“.
Naučna grupa pronašla je mutirajući gen dok je istraživala genetičke podatke dobijene analizom mozgova 1904 osobe koje, kako se činilo, nisu patile od neurodegenerativnih bolesti.
Prethodne studije identifikovale su genetičke varijacije koje mogu da povećaju rizik od neurodegenerativnih patologija kao što je gen ApoE (apolipoprotein E) u Alchajmerovoj bolesti.
Otkriće mutacije gena TMEM106B moglo bi da dovede do razvoja novog biomarkera koji bi omogućio razvoj terapija protiv starenja i identifikaciju potencijalnih meta za sprečavanje ili lečenje bolesti poput Alchajmerove.
Međutim, „ti geni objašnjavaju samo mali deo tih bolesti“, kaže Herv Tin, profesor na patologiji i ćelijskoj biologiji Univerziteta Kolumbija.
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